As Bible students we are aware of the crucifixion of Jesus, but are generally ignorant of the origin of the practise.
It is difficult to ascertain its origin before the time of the Persians. People such as the Assyrians practiced impalement (mounting a living body on a stake), as did the Persians. But Herodotus mentions that the Persians also crucified as a form of punishment. One example in recorded history occurred in 522 B.C. A few years later Darius the Great crucified one of his royal judges but afterward changed his mind and restored that man to a position of leadership.
Mass crucifixion also took place, one example being after the fall of Tyre to Alexander the Great in 332 following a seven-month siege. The infuriated conquerer crucified some 2,000 men of military age and sold some 30,000 others into slavery.
The Maccabean Alexander Jannaeus (103-76 B.C.) near the end of his reign crucified 800 Pharisees after putting down a rebellion in the town of Bemeselis, which lay north of Samaria.
In 71 B.C. at the end of the Roman slave revolt led by Spartacus, 6,000 recaptured slaves were crucified on crosses that were set up along the Appian Way.
Many Christians were crucified during the time of Nero after the great fire of Rome. (I've read also where they were also impaled and lit on fire to light Nero's circus, which stood on the site that the Vatican is today.)
At least these civilizations practiced crucifixion: Persians, Greeks, Phoenicians, Carthaginians, Jews and Romans. It was used as punishment or a deterrent for crime and rebellion, especially used for robbers and runaway slaves (Jesus himself being crucified between two robbers- Mark 15:27)
The punishment was usually reserved for non-Roman citizens, however in time some lower-class Romans became victims.
The practise was abolished by the emperor Constantine.
A heart set on love will do no wrong- Confucius
And the work of righteousness shall be peace; and the effect of righteousness quietness and assurance for ever. Isaiah 32:17