I'm now discovering that the Einstein–Cartan theory is supportive of the "Big Bounce" (or oscillatory universe interpretation of the Big Bang where the first cosmological event was the result of the collapse of a previous universe).
I am not a happy camper about that.
First Flash cosmology moves closer toward a "Big Rip" condition. Maybe the change in the c^2 value would alter how the Einstein-Cartan theory behaves. I do not know.
This is a recent leter sent to Peter Minkowski (a physicist well known for his works involving homogeneous torsion fields).
Greetings Peter Minkowski,
My name is John Sanders. As a current physics student, I am interested in your work involving homogeneous torsion fields. I am currently working to develop a cosmological model that works with uniform quantum spin, in tandem with homogeneous time-space inflation.
This premise developed upon discovering an existing relationship between the c^2 value (in Special and General Relativity) and EMR's group velocity times phase velocity. Simply stated; an appearance exists that light's two velocity forms represent linear dimensions (space/time) and angular time-space dimensions (wavelength/periodocity) that have been "folded together" relative to matter-energy, and that these two sets of dimensions seem to "unfold" with inflation.
For there to be a second set of time-space dimensions in angular form would require universe wide homogeneous spinning at the quantum scale. (Perhaps this is the source for quantum energy fluctuations in empty space.)
From an inverse perspective, a universe with homogeneous spin and expansion would behave like a Kerr-Newman black hole (where inflation is actually an inversed perspective of a fractal dimensional collapse into a singularity).
Discovering torsion fields to be the proper physics term for quantum spinning of empty space is what has finally led me to discover your unparalleled work.
If you would like (and have the time) I would be pleased to gain further insight on your views in this matter. If you are interested or curious enough to ask, feel free to relay any questions on my "First Flash cosmological model" project as well.
In the propagation of a polychromatic light pulse there are two velocities which are relevant. The first of these is the phase velocity of a monochromatic component, which is the propagation velocity of, say an electrical field maximum in the electromagnetic field. Where the phase velocity of different wavelengths is the same (ie in a medium of zero dispersion, such as light in vacuum) then the group velocity of the polychromatic pulse (the velocity with which the pulse propagates) equals the phase velocity. For light in a vacuum, this is equal to c, the speed of light in a vacuum.
In a dispersive medium (one in which the phase velocity is a function of wavelength) the phase velocity and the group velocity of a pulse are not equal. In all transparent passive media of normal dispersion, the refractive index increases with increasing frequency. The classical interference of waves results in a group velocity that is less than the slowest phase velocity of the highest frequency component. The appropriate formula is:
Where Vg is the group velocity, Vp is the phase velocity, k is the wavenumber and n is the refractive index.
Now in an anomalously dispersive medium, where the refractive index decreases with frequency, not only can the group velocity exceed the phase velocity, it can be negative. This counterintuitive result means that the pulse is observed to propagate in a direction opposite to the propagation of energy and information. This happens if k/n*dn/dk is negative. There is one very important thing to notice here – all of these results arise according to classical wave theory. There is nothing here to raise an eyebrow of any physicist.
(If one wants to understand the physical basis of a pulse propagating in the opposite direction to the phase velocity and the flow of energy, first consider that a narrow polychromatic pulse can be decomposed into a superimposed series of much longer monochromatic wave packets in the Fourier domain. In fact the narrow polychromatic pulse is necessarily composed of long monochromatic wave packets. For a pulse propagating in an anomalously dispersive medium the superposition of the long monochromatic waves produces a short polychromatic pulse propagating in a direction opposite to the direction of energy and phase propagation. The exact composition of these wave packets can be determined by a Fourier analysis of the polychromatic pulse)
So it is clear from classical wave theory that an anomalously dispersive medium can produce a group velocity that is greater than the phase velocity – in fact, such a medium can produce a negative group velocity.
The fly in the empirical ointment is that for all known transparent media operating in a linear domain, the dispersion is not anomalous resulting in a group velocity less than the phase velocity and a perfectly intuitive result. Wang et al addressed themselves to creating a medium with anomalous dispersion.
In order to do so they use non-linear optical phenomena. The medium is a gas of caesium atoms at 30 degrees centigrade, constrained in a 6cm long Pyrex glass cell.. A static magnetic field is applied to the caesium atoms to align the dipole moments. The atoms have three states : an excited state |0> and two ground states |1> and |2>. All atoms are prepared to be in the ground state |1>by optical pumping (two beams are used: one pumping the D2 transition to empty the 6S1/2F = 3 hyperfine ground state and the other to pump via the 6P1/2 hyperfine excited state to the |1> ground state. So the majority of atoms in the cell are prepared into the |F = 4,M = -4> |1> ground state. They then expose the medium to two strong Raman pump beams separated by 2.7Mhz. The Raman beams pump ground state |1> up to excited state |0> but are detuned from the |1> to |0> transition by an average large D 0 and from each other by 2D (2.7Mhz in the actual experiment). A further light beam, which is the probe field and which can be pulsed or CW stimulates the relaxation of excited state |0> into ground state |2> |F = 4, m = -2> which serves as the Raman transition final state. There are two obvious frequencies in which the gain in the probe field is maximised: ie when the probe field is resonant with the Raman transitions caused by the two pump fields.
As the probe field is detuned it therefore passes through two regions of high gain. The authors theoretically show that the optical susceptibility of the probe field is such that it experiences an anomalous dispersion region between the two gain lines.
The practical set-up includes the caesium gas contained in a cell, the two ground state pumping beams, the two Raman pumping beams and a probe beam. A beamsplitter is introduced to the probe beam on the source side of the cell so that a Detector D1 can sample the pulse before it propagates through the cell. The sample beam is detected after the cell by detector D2.
The authors measure a pulse in D2 which is advanced by 62ns when the Raman probes are tuned on resonance compared with when they are off resonance but is otherwise identical in both states. Since the phase velocity transition time of the caesium cell is only 0.2ns it seems like the peak of the pulse leaves the cell long before the it enters the cell. The group velocity index is – 310 ± 5 (– 62 / 0.2) At first sight it seems that causality is violated. However, a knowledge of classical wave theory immediately indicates the monochromatic components of the short polychromatic pulse are much longer that 62ns and that the negative group velocity index is an expected consequence of classical wave theory. Neither information nor energy propagates faster than the phase velocity and certainly not faster than c, the speed of light in vacuum.
where v is the frequency, n(v) is the refractive index at frequency v and c the speed of light in vacuum.
So what have we got here?: it is a very cleverly constructed medium with anomalous dispersion, consisting of a gas of caesium atoms in a 6 cm long cell, with four separate pump beams and a probe beam creating an empirically challenging but classically predicted wave phenomenon.
There are some simple introductions to the wave propagation principles at:
I posted this part because I liked the precision explanation on group and phase velocity. At some point, I will convert this physics equation into its dimensional components and see what I can glean from it.
Watching Bryonton's tenth dimension video (again) I realised the action of my folding linear and curved dimensions involves an additional ninth dimension. In Bryoton's mix of things, my model would change his ten dimensional limit to a total of fifteen dimensions.
Not surprisingly, I have some varied views on higher dimensions. There is another interesting point made that twist-looping dimensions requires use of space in additional dimension (as exampled by the mobius strip). This is a great example of as to why the rotational cycles in phase velocity must be describing additional dimensions to linear time-space.
In order to understand my own model of universe expansion, it is benefical to first have some understanding of the standard model.
The First Flash model shifts away from the early inflation idea (where everything suddenly started expanding at an insane number of times faster than light, only to suddenly slow down). Instead, the visible universe started its expansion at the speed of light, and has been exponentially accelerating ever since.
The video presents cosmic events as though space has just been stretching away over time (making light's travel time longer and longer), when in reality events (perceived from traveling light) are being stretched, as the incoming beams of light are being stretched by expanding space.
The end result is heavily red shifted light (causing drastic time dilation) that appears to have been traveling for billions of years, when in reality the trip only required thousands of years, thanks to time-space inflation.
The bottom line is, inflation doesn't just stretch the space that light is traveling through, it also stretches light's path as it travels through inflating space. (In this way, light may always be perceived to be traveling at an unchanging "speed of light" while its path though expanding space may also be stretched at an exponential rate.)
I was looking for illustrations or videos of what a four dimensional mobius strip would look like. The reason was a speculation that the dimensions representing phase velocity seemed to coincide with such geometry.
Not surprisingly, such a geometry is identical to the toroidial pattern that I was already claiming my model patterned off of.
This is a page to a new possible discovery; Psalm 104:1-2
Bless the Lord, O my soul. O Lord my God, thou art very great; thou art clothed with honour and majesty. Who coverest thyself with light as with a garment: who stretchest out the heavens like a curtain
I have already found the connection between the folded dimensions of the First Flash model (that unfold as the universe expands) and the Bible's reference to God stretching the heavens like a tent of curtain.
The new component here is God's use of light as a covering like a garment. Ellen White refers to just such a covering for Adam and Eve before the fall. I'm seeing a possible link between the folding of light's dimensions and the honorable garment or covering of light.
Looking at the verse in context, God is described to be clothed in honor and is also identified as stretching the heavens. If stretching the heavens is the unfolding of light dimensions and this is how God clothes himself (or by God clothing himself the dimensions of light are unfolded), then such a relationship may also have existed for man (as a covering) in an unfallen state.
Welding a ninth dimensional power of control and manipulation of light's eight dimensions would easily provide a covering for man, and would also permit wormhole travel (at will), invisibility, mimickery of any object's appearance, as well as optical manipulation aiding in micro and macroscopic observations.
I'm left wondering if human beings may again regain this ability if they fully take on Christ's character. If this were true, a very small number of people with such abilities could complete the gospel work in short order.
I'm due to present my Power Point presentation on the First Flash model this coming Sabbath at the SDA church in Castle Valley, UT. One of the staff is planning to video tape it and have it uploaded on to YouTube.
I'm due to present my Power Point presentation on the First Flash model this coming Sabbath at the SDA church in Castle Valley, UT. One of the staff is planning to video tape it and have it uploaded on to YouTube.
Looking at this most recent discovery of a 600 LY wide galaxy (compared to the 150,000 LY width of our galaxy) 13.3 billion LY away coincides very well with my model of galaxies expanding in area as the universe expands. Using F.F. calculations, galaxy MACS0647-JD would be light emitted only 102 years after creation nearly 6136 years ago. The universe itself would've expanded to a radius of about 3,800,061 light years by that time.
If the volume of a 600 ly galaxy is 113,100,000 cubic ly and the volume of the universe at that time was 2.3x10^20 cubic ly, then 2.0336x10^12 galaxies would fit in it. Current estimates are that there 170 billion galaxies within the visible universe. Compared to an area availability of over 20 trillion, there seems to be space enough.
I've been attempting to find a basic galactic expansion rate but thus far it's been a real headache. I finally figured out that I was searching for a square root function, but realized that my math classes haven't really worked with finding that form of function with just plot points on a graph. I finally determined that I needed to use a form of "interpolation". Even with that, I kept getting a parabolic pattern instead of the square root functions "gradually flattening slope". When I finally started to figure out what my galactic expansion rate does, I realized that at some point the expansion needs to stop or really slow down due to gravitational effects. The hypothesized function didn't do that, but rather kept expanding (and doing so way too fast).
It's back to the drawing board with that. I'm looking at compiling data bases on observed galactic distances and measured diameters. This is just a simple research project. It won't be meeting the typical standards of hard core science research, but I want to develop a rough estimate on this. Such estimates will be very important in the beginning stages of a universe model simulation.
I have discovered a most remarkable work developed by Andrej Rehak, called Perception Theory.
This man's theory looks at exponential acceleration rates of light, geared with cycles of rotation and tackles the Pioneer Anomaly. He has vastly expanded many of the dynamics on these issues, though Rehak hasn't acknowledged the needed amending of "c^2" to the "UV" value. I suspect that he may, after having presenting some light on the subject.
This may just be another pipe dream, but I am attempting to contact him about my own work. Perhaps even to gain some support.
Interesting stuff. There is a foundation to the idea of all sciences obeying inverse square laws including sound. That foundation arises from how principles of mathematics work, and pure systems of mathematics are more fundamental than even the dimensions within which we exist. This jives well with God speaking things into existence, if we look at God's word as a fundamental induction of his will in the form of precisely patterned energy waves.
An Old Earth creationist asked me to explain how objects in my model could exchange light (traveling at a light days squared rate), when the objects are traveling at a rate of light days squared from each other. This was my response.
I'm still working on a physical analogy for light and expanding space (I will likely use something like coiling rubber bands winding on conical spools), but I did iron out a mathematical/geometric representation.
You have objects "A" and "B", a midpoint "P", and light rays "a" and "b".
Objects "A" and "B" both travel away from midpoint "P" at (LD^2)/2D, where "LD" is light days and "D" is days.
Light rays "a" and "b" travel at (LD^2)/D from their initial emission point, relative to midpoint "P".
On day 0, "A" and "B" are both 1 LD from "P" and a total of 2 LD from each other. Light ray "a" has just been emitted from "A" and light ray "b" has just been emitted from "B".
Day 1: object distances from midpoint = 1.5 LD. Light rays "a" and "b" reach midpoint "P".
Day 2: object midpoint distances = 3 LD. Light rays both reach opposite objects. New light rays "a" and "b" are emitted from objects "A" and "B".
Day 3: object midpoint distances = 5.5 LD. Light rays "a" and "b" are both 2 LD from "P".
Day 4: object midpoint distances = 9 LD. Light rays "a" and "b" have both moved 1 LD beyond "P".
Day 5" object midpoint distances = 13.5 LD. Light rays "a" and "b" have both moved 6 LD beyond "P".
Day 6" object midpoint distances = 19 LD. Light rays "a" and "b" have both moved 13 LD beyond "P".
Day 7" object midpoint distances = 25.5 LD. Light rays "a" and "b" have both moved 22 LD beyond "P".
Day 8" object midpoint distances = 33 LD. Light rays "a" and "b" have both reached opposite objects.
This illustrates how objects may expand apart at a light days^2 rate, while still successfully exchanging light that travels at a light days^2 rate.
Now this fellow is asking what the biblical issues are that I have with OEC, other than the Sabbath.
That was kind of a frustrating question to me, considering how fundamental it is.
It's like if you have all of your electrical, data, gas, and water lines set up within a perfectly poured foundation, and an inspector asks why you'd build a structure there if say nothing was there. And he was seriously expecting you to find a better spot to start over.
Quite honestly, if the Sabbath was a fable then pretty much everything built upon it would be too. That would even effect Christ's credentials as Lord of the Sabbath.
Not a pretty picture from any perspective. I did mention the multiple creation accounts and Bible chronology too.
Myself, I think I'd feel like I was completely in the dark spiritually without the Sabbath.
It's a new day for the First Flash model. I've discovered yet another layer to it.
There are basically three layers underpinning physical science, properties of mass, light, and the expanding universe.
A key understanding for mass is the E=Mc^2 mass-energy equivalence value. This is a foundation for General Relativity.
de Broglie then, sums up the particle-wave nature of light with the E=PV equation. This is a cornerstone of Quantum Mechanics.
The inflation of the cosmos works oppositely of gravitation, where space-time between masses increases an thereby spreads objects apart.
Now, work in my model exposes that light actually has two simultaneous velocities, and the product of these will always equal that c^2 value.
With that part corrected, I looked at the energy equation for mass again. We don't see mass expanding at all, let alone at c^2. At the same time we observe mass having gravitational effects (which is really time-space curvature).
Of light's two velocity forms (group and phase velocity), it is the phase velocity that observes properties of wavelength and period cycles (both of which define properties connected with geometric curvature). And then of course Quantum Mechanics is plagued with a property called spin. In this instance, de Broglie's E=PV also means E=MUV.
Suppose then, that the c^2 value in E=Mc^2 for mass is this phase velocity squared (or E=MV^2). What actually happens to something in geometry, when the radius is squared? You get a circle, and in calculus it actually defines an ongoing circular cycle. It's a perfect fit!
But, what about the expanding universe, light, and the First Flash model's take on distant starlight's travel time?
For the expanding universe, a form of dimensional expansion must occur that equally cancels gravitation in connection with empty time-space. What's the difference between empty space and space occupied by mass? Empty space isn't curved. So then, the energy for inflation would require group velocity to be squared to counter effect gravitation from mass.
It then becomes somewhat obvious what light really is. It's the interaction between curved time-space (caused by mass) and linear time-space (present in vacuum).
How can such a setup work and describe the universe we see? Consider these new squared values as "absolute volumes" (V^2 for mass, UV for light, and U^2 for space). And then there's the "observed volumes" fitting with how we perceive reality.
We observe objects of mass relative to density multiplied by the total quantity.
For light, it's speed is calculated usually by it's group velocity.
The expansion of space works off of scaled distances between two points (defined by mass baring objects), with the points being perceived to be also expanding.
If we have then two points retaining mass (M1 and M2), and empty space between them (S), I can illustrate how this works.
If the absolute volume for S is less than the combined absolute volume of M1 and M2, then the expansion of M1 and M2 will cause these points to collide. (effect of gravitation on a falling object)
If the absolute volume for S equals the combined absolute volume of M1 and M2, there will be no apparent time-space expansion between M1 and M2. (effect of orbiting masses)
If the absolute volume for S exceed the combined absolute volumes of M1 and M2, M1 and M2 will be observed to expand apart due to time-space expansion. (effect from cosmic expansion)
In all three of these instances, light's absolute volume "UV" does not change, nor does light's observed speed (obtained from group velocity).
But the distances that light actually travels in this model permits light to successfully travel billions of light years within a window of thousands of years.
I just finished watching Brian Greene's four disk DVD set "Space, Time and the Universe.
It has re-inspired me to complete my book that should've been done years ago.
I'm considering making some Youtube presentations first. My idea is to follow Brian Greene's presentation methods (including some kind of effects/illustrations) and to use scripted dialogue utilizing dry humor similar to James Burke's presentation, in midst of historical narratives.
I am currently developing a new layer of elements describing how the laws of physics fit together.
The idea came to mind when I was searching for a better way to explain expansion, relative to the speed of light and the effects of gravitation.
It breaks down to three key things; mass, light, and space. I discovered that all of these can be described in terms of group velocity and phase velocity (when recognizing these two velocities to be descriptions of linear and angular time-space dimensions).
M = mass
L = light (having both group and phase velocities folded together)
S = space (actually space expansion or "dark energy" if you like)
U = group velocity (normal time-space dimensions)
V = phase velocity (angular time-space dimensions)
-><- = condensing of dimensions <--> = expanding of dimensions ->-> = dimensions moving in concert
M = V -><- V L = U ->-> V S = U <--> U
With this, I can compile the effects that occur between two masses.
U<- V-><-V U-><-U V-><-V ->U
This layout shows light emitted in both directions from both masses. It also evidences many other forces at work as well.
There are in fact nine different properties being created here, and they are all rolled up together.
U->->U = neutrino U->->V = photon V->->V = electron U-><-U = Casmir effect U-><-V = dark matter V-><-V = mass U<-->U = dark energy U<-->V = white hole V<-->V = weakon
In reaction to current discussions with Domenico Mico Idato, I tried finding a challenge he posted on bending light. Anyway, I discovered that he's part of a group called the "dissidents of Jean de Climont" or the "Natural Philosophy Alliance."
Jean de Climont is the pseudonym of the members of the Trust Jean de Climont Associates Ltd.
Looking this up, I found this quote explaining the Jean de Climont stance;
"Philosophy of nature pages include critics of the foundation of the official paradigm involving both the relativity theories and the quantum mechanics. These critics are mainly bases upon the recent experimental results, which question the very foundation of the official paradigm. These pages gives access to the dissident database of JdeC associates including about 7000 dissidents. They include also presentation of about 600 alternative paradigms found in the Internet and an historical part explaining the main systems of the world proposed since the Ancient Greeks."
Intrigued, I looked further finding articles posted by Christian Sutterlin (the author of Jean de Climont posts) describing problems with gravity probe B findings and other things dealing with gravitation and periodicity.
Gravity Probe B experiment results finally seem to confirm the Frame-Dragging effect of GRT after several corrections of the measured values. These results are they undoubtful? They cover only 2 months. Unfortunately those two months are going from end December to end February when the distance from the Earth to the Sun is steadily increasing so that the differential effect of the Sun on Probe B satellite is decreasing exactly like the curves given within the experiment final report. It would have been so nice to cover a period from the 15th November to the 15th February so that the effect of the Sun could have been clearly eliminated! But there is even worse:
They show also a periodical effect clearly demonstrated by all of the four gyros curves (please note that the scales of the curves given in the final report are not all the same). The periodicity is approximately 4 per month. This is the double of the tidal effect (two maxima per month). The only such periodicity equal to 4 per month is the nul value of the tidal curve derivation. The maxima occur the very same day for all four curves of course.
The most amazing feature is that one on two of all the four Probe B frame-dragging effect curves maxima occurs exactly at the date of highest tides.
Those highest tides occured on the (dd/mm/yyyy)
27/12/2004 12/01/2005 28/01/2005 10/02/2005
(This is the days in Brest FRA but they are the same everywhere of course because they are linked to the relative positions of the Sun, the Moon and the Earth)
Now why is there an additional maximum of all four curves in between highest tides day?
All these problems make the results of this experiment highly questionable! The most interesting is that they are fully in line with Prof. Allais findings both with his paraconic pendulum and with his analysis of Miller measurements with MMI.
Galaxies do not rotate in accordance with general relativity, nor indeed with the law of Newton. The gas and stars in galaxies rotate at constant speed. Worse, their speed exceeds that which can be calculate from the visible mass of galaxies. Relativists have therefore invented the invisible dark matter also called missing mass. This matter must be evenly distributed in galaxies. This phenomenon had already been found in fact for the relative motion of pairs of galaxies. At no time, the relativists have accepted this fact could question their doctrine. Unfortunately, in 1977, astronomers discovered that the visible mass of galaxies varies with the fourth power of the rotation speed of stars. This relation between the speed of stars and the mass of their galaxy is enforcing a direct link between the visible mass and the black mass of galaxies. This result was named after the astronomer who has highlighted the most numerous and the most significant cases. It is the law of Stacy McGaugh, indeed already noticed by Tully and Fisher in 1977. This link between dark matter and visible mass is entirely contrary to the theory of General Relativity. The tragedy is that many experiments designed to highlight the famous black mass since the middle of last century have failed.
Definitely some interesting stuff here.
Anyway, here's a link to a list of associates in this group. I can tell already that there's a wealth of information to be discovered from this group's independent findings.